Even in the early phases of their formation, tropical cyclones pose one of the greatest risks to property and human life. They comprise a variety of dangers, such as storm surge, flooding, extremely strong winds, tornadoes, and lightning, each of which has the potential to have a severe negative impact on life and property. Together, these risks combine and significantly raise the possibility of fatalities and property damage.
Tropical cyclones have been blamed for 1 942 disasters over the previous 50 years that resulted in 779 324 fatalities and US$ 1 407.6 billion in economic losses, or an average of 43 fatalities and US$ 78 million in damages each day.
Characteristics of tropical cyclones
A tropical cyclone is a swiftly spinning storm that develops over tropical oceans, where it obtains its energy. The "eye" of the system, where the weather is typically calm and cloudless, lies in the center of the system with a low pressure center and clouds spiraling towards the eyewall. Its diameter can reach 1000 km, however it usually ranges from 200 to 500 km. High seas, extremely destructive storm surges, torrential rain, and extremely powerful winds are all characteristics of tropical cyclones. In the Northern Hemisphere, the winds blow in the opposite direction of the Southern Hemisphere, which is clockwise. In the interest of public safety, tropical cyclones that are stronger above a particular threshold are given names.
Tropical Cyclone Forecasting
Tropical cyclones are monitored as they form by meteorologists all over the world using contemporary technology like satellites, weather radars, and computers. Tropical cyclones can unexpectedly weaken or modify their trajectory, making them challenging to predict. But to predict how a tropical cyclone develops, including its movement and change in intensity; when and where one will impact land; and at what speed, meteorologists use cutting-edge technologies and build contemporary methodologies like numerical weather prediction models. The National Meteorological Services of the relevant countries then issue official warnings.
Over the warm tropical oceans of the world, about 85 tropical storms form each year. A little over half (45) of them develop into tropical cyclones, hurricanes, or typhoons. The WMO Severe Weather Information Centre offers real-time tropical cyclone alerts, and the WMO Tropical Cyclone Programme provides information on these dangers.
Information regarding tropical cyclones may be widely and promptly disseminated thanks to the WMO system. Tropical cyclones are more often being watched as they form as a result of international collaboration and coordination. WMO's Tropical Cyclone Programme manages the global and regional coordination of the activities. The Tropical Cyclone Programme of the Organization is carried out by the Regional Specialized Meteorological Centers with an activity focus on tropical cyclones and Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers, both designated by WMO. They are tasked for finding, keeping an eye on, tracking, and predicting any tropical cyclones in their particular areas. The Centers offer the National Meteorological and Hydrological Services advising information and direction in real-time.
Multi-hazard Impact-based Forecast and Warning Services
Every year, the effects of tropical cyclones and other meteorological, climate, and water extremes cause numerous fatalities, major property damage, and infrastructure failure, with long-lasting negative economic effects on communities. All of this occurs despite the fact that many of these severe disasters have been accurately predicted and appropriate warnings have been provided by the accountable National Meteorological and Hydrological Service (NMHS). The causes for this seeming disconnect are found in the lack of knowledge of the possible effects of hydrometeorological event forecasts and warnings by the general public as well as by the agencies in charge of civil protection and disaster management.
The public increasingly demands knowledge about what to do to safeguard their safety and defend their property, making a good weather forecast or warning insufficient.